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București: Mănăstirea Plumbuita (Plumbuita Monastery)



Plumbuita Monastery was founded on July 1st 1564, during the Petru Voda’s (1559-1568) time and has a history that can be considered a tumultuous one with many events that make this place of worship to remain a special one. Nearby there is the bell tower, the Royal House and the cells. The Royal House is a museum that contains a collection of religious and original murals. The Monastery is dedicated to St. John the Baptist Nativity, on January 6, and is located on a hill on the right bank of the river Colentina in Bucharest.


In 1585, ruler Mihnea Turcitul dedicates Plumbuita monastery to the one on Mount Athos, monastery Xiropotamou. Between 1595 and 1914 the church reached an advanced state of degradation because of large damages and a fire. The church is rebuilt in 1647, at the request of ruler Matei Basarab, this time following the model of Dealu monastery built by Radu cel Mare, to honor the victory from 1632 of the Romanians against the Turks. With this second structure, the Royal House is added, and the monastery is fortified with high walls for protection. Between years 1802-1806, Abbot Dionysius of Ioannina builds a new bell tower after the old one was destroyed during an earthquake in 1802. The monastery is named ‘Plumbuita’ by the locals, because of the roof which has been a long time in lead table.


The plan of the church building is apsidal, consisting of three apses that are placed across from the church entrance – one of them above the altar, and the other two above the lateral sides of the naos. The tower is placed right above the naos; the church has been provided with two towers above the pronaos, following the architectural pattern of the Dealu Monastery, a pattern that was taken over by several other religious dwellings during the reign of Matei Basarab. There have been preserved several segments of the original paintings, as well as stone frames in the Moldavian style. The kitchen of the monastery is the oldest of its kind in all of the monastic establishments of Walachia.


Plumbuita monastery has triconch plan, with the tower on the nave and holds architectural character typical to the Wallachia region, and Gothic windows frames, which shows the influence of Moldavian architecture.


The Royal house has massive brick arches on the ground floor and numerous arches supported by cylindrical columns, at the first floor. The touristic site is one of the few examples of previous civil architecture of the nineteenth century which is preserved in Bucharest. The bell tower is included in the enclosure wall in half its southern side. The tunnel’s entry pierce the top level and has above the Board bells.[/green][blue]

Manastirea Plumbuita a fost intemeiata la 1 Iulie 1564, in timpul lui Petru Voda (1559-1568) si are o istorie ce poate fi considerata ca tumultoasa cu multe evenimente care au facut ca acest loc de rugaciune sa ramana unul special. Langa biserica manastirii se afla clopotnita, Casa Regala si chiliile. Casa Regala este un muzeu care adaposteste o colectie de obiecte religioase si picturi murale originale. Manastirea este consacrata Nasterii Sfantului Ioan Botezatorul, pe data de 6 Ianuarie, si se afla pe un deal langa malul drept al raului Colentina in Bucuresti.


In 1585, voievodul Mihnea Turcitul inchina Manastirea Plumbuita catre manastirea Xiropotamou de la Muntele Athos. Intre 1595 si 1914 biserica a ajuns intr-o stare avansata de degradare datorita multor stricaciuni si incendii. Biserica a fost reconstruita in 1647, la cererea voievodului Matei Basarab, de aceasta data urmand modelul manastirii Dealu construita de Radu cel Mare, in onoarea victoriei din 1632 a romanilor impotriva turcilor. Odata cu aceasta a doua constructie, este construita si Casa Regala, si manastirea este fortifcata cu ziduri de protectie. Intre anii 1802-1806, Abatele Dionysius de Ioannina construieste o noua clopotnita dupa ce vechea colopotnita fusese distrusa in timpul unui puternic cutremur in 1802. Manastirea este numita ‘Plumbuita’ de localnici, datorita acoperisului care a fost pentru mult timp din tabla de plumb.


Planul de constructie al bisericii este absidal, consistand din trei abside care sunt situate de-a lungul intrarii din fata a bisericii – una din ele deasupra altarului, si celelalte doua deasupra partilor laterale ale naosului. Turnul este plasat chiar deasupra naosului; biserica a fost inzestrata cu doua turnuri deasupra pronaosului, urmand modelul arhitectural al Manastirii Dealu, model care a fost preluat si la realizarea mai multor asezaminte religioase in timpul voievodului Matei Basarab. Au fost pastrate cateva portiuni din picturile originale, precum si inscriptii in stil moldovenesc. Bucataria manastirii este una din cele mai vechi de acest fel din cadrul stabilimentelor monastice din Valahia.


Manastirea Plumbuita are un plan tricon, cu turlele deasupra navei si pastreaza caracteristici arhitecturale specifice regiunii Valahia, si cadre ale ferestrelor in stil gotic, care arata influenta stilului arhitectural moldovenesc.


Casa Regala are arcuri masive din caramida la parter si numeroase arce sustinute de coloane cilindrice, la primul etaj. Acest loc turistic este unul din cele cateva exemple ale arhitecturii civile anterioare secolului 19 care au fost conservate in Bucuresti. Clopotnita este inclusa in zidul de incinta din partea sudica a manastirii. Intrarea sub forma de tunel strapunge acest zid de incinta si are deasupra sa clopotnita.